15/07/2015 - 22:03
In the Internet appeared crash investigation Malaysia Airlines Boeing in the sky over the Donbas July 17, 2014, submitted by anonymous aviation expert. According to him, the aircraft could have been shot down by the Israeli class of "air-to-air" type missile the "Python". This anonymous investigation has already led to a broad discussion. The version of the hit in the plane missiles "air-air" confirms the testimony of a witness in the case of a plane crash - Eugene Agapov, who served as a mechanic aircraft armament of the 1st Brigade Combat Squadron Air Force of Ukraine.
Recall, according to Agapov, the day of the disaster, he personally saw as Ukrainian Su-25 piloted by Captain Voloshin, made the flight from the airport with rockets such as "air-to-air" and came back without them later. The July 15 Investigative Committee spokesman Vladimir Markin said that his department has evidence that Boeing was hit by a rocket-type "air-air" that s probably of foreign production.We have evidence, including based on the results of examinations, that the plane was shot down by a rocket-type "air-to-air." Moreover, experts believe that the missile type is set and that the missile is not produced in Russia.
This once again confirms the testimony of important witnesses Eugene Agapov. "Russian Spring" invites readers to familiarize themselves with the anonymous report and draw their own conclusions about its authenticity.
A REPORT ON RESULTS OF STUDY OF POSSIBLE CAUSES OF AIR CRASH Malaysian passenger plane Boeing-777-200 9M-MRD, crashed 17.07.2014 G. of the flight MH-17 from Amsterdam to Kuala Lumpur in July 2015
1. SUBJECT OF RESEARCH Photo - and video fragments Malaysian passenger plane Boeing-777-200 9M-MRD, crashed 07.17.2014 of the flight, the MH-17 from Amsterdam to Kuala Lumpur obtained from open sources.
2. CIRCUMSTANCES OF ACCIDENT July 17, 2014 the plane Boeing 777-200 of State and the registration number 9M-MRD, the airline «Malaysia Airlines», operates scheduled passenger flight MH17 from Amsterdam (Schiphol airport, Netherlands) - Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). On board the aircraft were 283 passengers and 15 crew members. The plane was found destroyed near the village of Grabovo (Donetsk region, Ukraine), some large fragments were found in the area of human settlements Rassypnoye and Paul Fortress (Donetsk region, Ukraine). Main zone location of the wreckage was located 8.5 km to the east of the last known position of the aircraft in flight. The total area of the spread of debris was about 50 km2
3. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The aim of the study was to establish the fact of defeat combat aircraft means, the circumstances of the destruction and the characteristics of the means of destruction.
4. BASIC MATERIALS RESEARCH In the study solved three interrelated and sequential tasks: identification of combat damage, the definition of conditions of formation of combat damage; identification of the type of impact weapons.
4.1. Analysis of structural condition and type of damage plane fragments The evaluation of photographs was found that the appearance of fragments corresponds to the destruction of action loads exceeding their static strength. At the same time on fragments of the cockpit there are specific damage in the form of local holes and dents that are characteristic of high-speed Shot compact solid objects. Similar damage are on fragments inside of the cockpit.Approximately related damage, but a slightly larger size and a lower density arrangement, there are at the toe of the left engine inlet. All listed damage (mostly - holes) identified as damage formed high speed objects.
Indeed, most of these lesions have features wave phenomena accompanying process high penetration of metal barriers. In particular, in the areas skin, supported by a set of power inside, there is a deformation of edges of holes in the direction opposite the direction of impact (Figure 1a, arrow 1). Such deformation characteristic of shock wave reflected from the power set. In addition, the surface of the skin in the area of some relatively large holes rash observed microcraters (1a, arrow 2), which is usually formed by a high-speed action "dust" ( unburned explosive fines and construction details warhead submunitions) accompanying the blast at a small distance from the explosion. On the fragments of the plane, with a relatively thick layer of paint (LPC) on the front surface of the area around the holes observed spalling of the coating ( 1b, arrow 3), which is also a sign of wave phenomena typical of high-speed impact.
On the remaining fragments of the plane found no such damage. Existing single holes on the surface of the left wing (except fragment sock slat) identified as high-speed only in appearance is not possible. Battle damage to the fragments studied in appearance characteristic of the action high-explosive fragmentation warhead remote means of destruction, the explosion which occurred in a small distance from the surface of the aircraft. implicit regularity in the arrangement of damage suggests that, most likely, the warhead was equipped ready-striking elements, which is typical of high-explosive warheads absolute majority of modern means of destruction of air targets.
The initial speed submunitions modern remote weapons of destruction of air targets are usually in the range of 1500 ... 2500 m / s.
Figure 1 - A typical appearance of holes in the fragments of the plane. Arrows 1 - deformation of the edges of the holes from the action of the reflected wave in the direction opposite to the direction of impact. Arrows 2 - high marks "dust" that accompanies the blast at close range from the explosion site. Arrow 3 - site chipping paint (LCP) around the holes, the characteristic steps of the reflected wave. Thus, damage to the fragments of the plane near the cockpit, are fighting, t. e. formed by high-speed compact striking elements are most likely ready to type, high-explosive fragmentation warhead remote means of destruction, the explosion which occurred a short distance from the cockpit of the aircraft.
4.2. DETERMINATION OF SPATIAL OF AIRCRAFT Under the terms of the spatial destruction of aircraft in this case refers to the situation of the combat means of destruction (the point of the explosion) with respect to the aircraft at the time of the explosion. It was adopted OsXsYsZs coordinate system associated with the aircraft in such a way that the origin coincides with the end of the nose cone of the aircraft axis OsYs directed forward flight and coincides with the construction of the aircraft horizontal axis OsXs directed to the right on the flight, and the axis OsZs - up
(Fig. 2). Figure 2 - Associated with the plane coordinate system is adopted in determining the spatial conditions of the lesion. The obtained photographic materials executed scheme binding fragments of the aircraft to the design scheme of the aircraft type Boeing 777-200
(Figure 3). Figure 3 - Schematic binding fragments of the front part of the fuselage to the design scheme of the aircraft of type Boeing 777-200 Next was made visual identification of battle damage on the outer contour fragments of the aircraft near the cockpit and counting
(Fig. 4).Then, fragments of photographs, made at different angles, was estimated location of these lesions in relation to each other and to steadily identifiable structural nodes (joints, connections) to these fragments. On the basis of performance evaluation calculated coordinates damage adopted coordinate system . In total, the outer contour of fragments A, B, C, D and E, it was estimated 230 injuries, together with the contours of the fragments were applied to a three-dimensional model of the plane type Boeing 777-200
Figure 4 - Exterior portions of fragments A (a, b) and B (c), G (d, e), B (e) and g (x) with numbered battle damage.
Figure 5 - The appearance of the model front part of the fuselage of the aircraft type Boing777-200 with marked circuits fragments A, B, G, B, D, and battle damage. 4.2.1. Determination of the position of the warhead destruction means relative to the aircraft at the time of the explosion analysis of the mutual disposition of battle damage on the surface of the fragments of the plane and the overall model showed that, despite the lack of a large photo of the outer contour of the cockpit, there are quite obvious boundaries of the field covering (Fig. 6 ). This fact allows us to accurately assess the spatial conditions destruction of the aircraft.
Figure 6 - The combination of contours fragments (dotted line) and the locations they battle damage (red areas) with the surface of the plane-analogue. In particular, the fragment in combat damage, located near border covering field, are clearly oriented elongated straight trace segments, formed as a result of contact with the striking elements whose trajectories are oriented tangentially to the outer contour of the fuselage at the site (Fig. 7a). These straight tangent tracks are essentially preserved and visible part of the trajectory of submunitions, which allows to accurately determine the position of these trajectories in three-dimensional space in a specified coordinate system.
Figure 7 - The appearance of the surface of the fragment in various areas. To this end, commends the elongation of the tangent track on the surface of the fragment (measured angles ) in relation to the visible structural nodes (ris.7b, c), and then, according to the orientation of the surface region fragment OsXcYcZc coordinate system (Fig. 8) is determined by the direction cosines of the trajectories which, in combination with the measured coordinates of the damage, unambiguously determine the position of the trajectories in the space. In turn, the coordinates of the points of intersection (crossing) thus recovered trajectories damaging elements in the space allow us to estimate the position of the point of explosion.
Figure 8 - Location of the test pieces in the specified coordinate system. The measurement results showed that a small area of the surface of the fragment B, at a distance of 1 m along the border of the field covering, there is a very significant change in the orientation of traces from 45º to 20º (see. Figure 7). Analysis of damage near the border of the field covering the remaining fragments revealed several similar traces on fragments of A (Fig. 9) and B (Fig. 10) and D (Fig. 11).
Figure 9 - The appearance of the surface of the fragment D in the border area of the field covering.
Figure 10 - The appearance of the surface of the fragment B in the border area of the field covering.
Figure 11 - The appearance of the surface of the fragment G in the border area of the field on the left side of the covering. Total 6 were chosen tangent damage on the location and orientation of which managed to quantitatively determine the position of the respective trajectories affecting elements in the selected coordinate system. The calculation results are shown in Table 1. Table 1 - Results of determining the position of the tangential trajectories of submunitions in a coordinate system OsXcYcZc The calculations by crossing (mating) trajectories based on the data shown in Table 1, it was found that the point of the explosion is in the region bounded by coordinates: x0 = -1.5 ... -1.9 m y0 = -0.8 ... -1.3 m; z0 = 1.8 ... 2.2 m. The results suggest the following conclusions: fairly compact area of possible location of the point of the explosion, though it was obtained in four of the five test aircraft fragments, suggests that, most likely, the field is formed by covering a means of destruction, the explosion of the warhead of the means of destruction occurred very close to the plane, namely, a distance of approximately 0.8 ... 1.6 m from the glass cockpit (opposite pane crew commander).
In Fig. 12 shows a three-dimensional interpretation of the calculated area of location of the point of explosion. Figure 12 - The relative position of the reconstructed trajectories of submunitions, the tangent of damage.
4.3. DETERMINATION OF PERFORMANCE warhead weapons 4.3.1.Characterization of damaging elements in nature and size of holes you can estimate the size and sometimes shape submunitions. In general, the size and shape of the holes formed on the skin of the aircraft struck the striking element, not only depend on the shape and size of the striking element, but also from the angle of his approach to the skin. Therefore, to estimate the size of the striking elements made to measure the transverse dimension of the holes, ie, . e. its size in the direction perpendicular to the velocity vector of the striking member. Once it was determined the position of the aircraft with respect to the explosion, for each breaching its fragments can estimate direction of approach of the striking element, ie. e. its direction of projection of the velocity vector to the affected surface. In the present study to assess the size of the available images (Fig. 13) in relation to the structural elements of known dimensions (diameter rivets, screws) 186 holes was studied.The results showed that the external contour of the transverse dimension of the fragments of the vast number of holes ( 86 is in the range of 6 ... 13 mm, with a pronounced maximum around 8 mm (Fig. 14). This allows us to assume that all the damage constituted striking elements of the same type (single session). If warhead containing two or more types of submunitions, the chart would be observed two peaks or more.
Figure 13 - Illustration of the method of measuring the size of the cross-combat damage (holes) from compact submunitions. Vred - direction collinear vectors projected rate of submunitions in this part of the surface of the fragment.
Figure 14 - Histogram of the distribution of holes in the outer contour of the aircraft fragments largest transverse dimension. The results of evaluation of the size of holes available on the photos suggest that the submunitions had the shape of a parallelepiped with sides of 8 × 8x6 with a tolerance of ± 0,5 mm (Fig. 15a).It simulated the process of breaking the barriers affecting element 8 × 8x6 (with a tolerance of ± 0,5 mm sides) with its various orientations in space (Fig. 15b), which showed a sufficient convergence of the results with the actual size and shape of holes. The mass of the striking elements, likely made of steel, is 2.4 ... 3.7 g Snap 2015-07-14 at 20.20.13.png
Figure 15 - Supposed submunitions (a) and modeling of the shape and size of holes formed from it (b). According to the report submitted by the "Almaz-Antey" (SAM developer of the "Book"), from the fragments of the aircraft were recovered fragments of the complex shape, reminiscent of the "I-beam". On the basis of the appearance of these fragments it was concluded that the aircraft was shot down by a missile from the air defense system of the "Buk" (warhead of one of its versions outfitted with steel striking elements in the form of "I-beam"). However, according to the developer, the initial mass of the striking element of the "I-beam" is 8.1 g, which is more than twice the maximum calculated weight. Therefore, the allegation that the pieces are extracted shrapnel from the missile type SAM "Buk "most likely false. 4.3.2. Determining the mass of the warhead on the number of submunitions Determination of the number of submunitions in the warhead is performed based on the assessment angular density of the flow in the meridional sector expansion, and is calculated as follows: where ɸ max - the angle of the meridional sector expansion submunitions. Due to the fact that the angular flux density striking elements calculated by the location of damage in the cover at a predetermined position of the point of the explosion, it is obvious that a change in position of the point estimate of the density will change. Accordingly, the will to change the angle of the meridional sector expansion submunitions. Therefore, to determine the number of submunitions have been calculated angular density at different distances from the surface of the explosion of the aircraft (within the calculated field), t. E. At a distance of 0.8, 1.2 and 1.6 m, respectively. The maximum estimated value of the number of submunitions in the warhead was 3650 pieces. However, the lack of sufficient information on the characteristics of their submunitions does not allow to fully implement the identification procedure. Therefore, due to lack of sufficient information on foreign weapons of destruction, including destruction of national development funds, but foreign manufacture (modernization), set its specific type It is not possible.
5. Analysis of the results as a result of the study found that the aircraft could not be struck by means of destruction of the domestic development and production.